Role of frozen precipitation in plant development. Accumulated precipitation data

Role of frozen precipitation in plant development. Accumulated precipitation data

A large amount of water is needed for normal plant development.The primary source of soil moisture is atmospheric precipitation.

Along with rain, solid precipitation in the form of snow that falls in the winter season exercises a significant influence on the agricultural cycle. Snow creates a snow cover that protects winter crops, perennial grasses and the root systems of fruit trees and small fruit plants against injury from frost. Furthermore, the snow cover provides a moisture reserve used by the plants in the spring and the first half of summer.

These moisture reserves accumulated in the soil before sowing contribute significantly to the development of all plants. Agricultural practice worldwide attests to the fact that the moisture accumulated during autumn and winter is a major factor limiting possibilities for un-irrigated agriculture. For example, deciding which areas to seed for wheat in arid districts often depends on the soil moisture content in the spring. If insufficient, fields designated for sowing wheat are used for crops that require less depth of moisture, or else are left fallow.

The role played by soil moisture in successful sowing varies considerably depending on the meteorological conditions during the growing season.

Very little dissipates in rainy seasons with lower air temperatures. On the other hand, plants survive largely at the expense of water in the soil during arid years, which normally dries up along the entire length of root development. In these situations, the autumn and winter water reserve from frozen precipitation is a primary source for providing plants with moisture, and field crops use up all these reserves completely in producing the harvest.

Given this situation, it’s difficult to overestimate a factor like precipitation accumulated over the winter. It’s possible to plan for field use for the upcoming season, decide which crops to plant and plan for the size of the harvest when you have data available on accumulated precipitation.

Accumulated precipitation data is calculated as the total precipitation for a given period, based on historical data.

Weather and pests. Accumulated temperature data for analysis of possible damage from pests

Weather and pests. Accumulated temperature data for analysis of possible damage from pests

Fields and gardens are complicated ecosystems in fact, and they are the perfect habitat for pests. Additionally to direct harm caused to plants by pests, many pest species can transmit viruses from one plant to another and hence spread diseases.  
Biology of living creatures is closely connected with weather. Organisms are dependent on seasonal cycles as well as on temporary fluctuations. Weather influences all living things primarily due to changes in temperature and humidity. Weather conditions can provoke a sharp increase in pest amount. For example, hot and dry weather gives rise to aphid, while slugs and snails thrive in relatively warm and wet conditions. Pest behavior is especially closely bound to temperature. Aftermath of non-seasonal changes in temperature (such as later than usual frosts or warmer summers) and its impact on pests is notorious for many centuries.  

The influence of temperature on plant productivity in agriculture. Accumulated temperature.

The influence of temperature on plant productivity in agriculture. Accumulated temperature.

Accumulated temperature is a weather parameter which directly influences productivity of agricultural plants. All biological and chemical processes taking place in the soil are connected with air temperature. Heat supply of crops is characterized by a sum of average daily air temperatures that are higher than a biological minimum during a vegetation period. Both too high and too low temperatures spoil a course of biochemical processes in cells, and irreversible changes can be caused that lead to a stop of growth and death of plants.

New API for accumulated temperature and precipitation data!

New API for accumulated temperature and precipitation data!

We are happy to announce our new APIs based on historical data and focused primarily on users from the agro-sector. API for accumulated temperature data and API for accumulated precipitation data.
Accumulated temperature data is an index that denotes an amount of warm. This index is determined as a sum of average daily air and soil temperatures which exceeds a definite threshold of 0, 5, 10 degrees or a biological minimum of temperature level which is crucial for some specific plant.
Accumulated precipitation data is calculated as a sum of all parameters for a peculiar period.

Accumulated precipitation data for agriculture

Accumulated precipitation data for agriculture

Precipitation, mostly rains, has a huge impact on agriculture. For the growing all the plants need a smallest amount of water at least, and rain is still one of the most effective ways of watering despite the development of modern technologies. Too much or otherwise too little precipitation is bad and even harmful for agricultural plants. Drought can destroy the harvest and can increase erosion as well as the overly humid weather is able to trigger a growth of unfavorable fungi. Moreover, various kinds of plants demand different amounts of precipitation. For example, some succulent species require little water while tropical plants need hundreds of inches of rain a year just to maintain their living.
A fluctuation of precipitation amounts is quite substantial in continental climates. A fluctuation of month amounts is bigger than those of year. A considerable precipitation variation leads to situations when there is a precipitation lack during some years, and drought takes place thus forming the areas of unstable hydration. With a long absence of rains and at high temperatures the reserves of moisture in the soil dry out due to evaporation. A previous arid season brings a shortage of a crop yield even in a humid season as the harvest lacks time to ripen. Thus disadvantageous conditions for an ordinary plant development are established, and a crop yield of agricultural plants decreases or perishes.  
Along with precipitation amounts, the number of days with precipitation a month or a year is also a significant climatic index. Plants are sensitive about a matter whether a given precipitation amount falls at once during only several days or it rains often and a precipitation amount is distributed comparatively evenly throughout a month. For instance, even one great downpour in a prairie area in summer has a little ability to improve an arid situation.
Employing a data set of a precipitation amount and a number of days one can calculate an accumulated precipitation amount for any region during a specific period of time.

Accumulated temperature data for agriculture

Accumulated temperature data for agriculture

Temperature, and especially accumulated temperature, is an important factor and it plays a fundamental role in agricultural productivity. Plants and insects develop in accordance with temperature. The warmer weather, the faster they grow and reproduce, and otherwise, the colder, the slower the processes go.

All species have a biological minimum of a temperature level, and the development does not take place at all below this level. When temperature of environment begins to exceed this minimum level, it gives a start to growth and reproduction. The value of this basic temperature (or a development threshold) has a crucial significance, and it differs for a definite species of plants and insects.

Accumulated temperature (AT) represents an integrated excess or lack of temperature regarding a fixed starting point. This index is calculated as a sum of average daily temperature of air and soil, which exceeds a certain threshold of zero, 5, 10 degrees or a biological minimum of a temperature level.

Basically speaking, this is a way to include temperature and time into one dimension for quantitative evaluation of growth speed of plants and insects. Usually the index of accumulated temperature data is used to create models of crop growth.  
In the near future we will introduce our new API for the accumulated temperature data. API will be based on historical data and will be focused primarily on users from the agricultural sector.  

We are happy to announce that one of our products - API for UV-index has got significant improvement

We are happy to announce that one of our products - API for UV-index has got significant improvement

We are happy to announce that one of our products - API for UV-index has got significant improvement.    
- Now besides current and historical data, you can also get UVI forecasts for periods of 8 days.    
Syntax has got considerably easier,  it has become clearer and more unified like other APIs version 2.5.  
- There is a new feature to request data on any geographic coordinates without limits on accuracy.
Accuracy of UVI modeled data has been increased twice (the interpolation grid step decreased from 0.5 to 0.25 degrees).      
- Soon the support of search by city name, city id and zip-code will be available. 

You can find the instructions for the updated version here http://openweathermap.org/api/uvi 

Please pay attention that during 2 weeks UV-index data will be in open access.  Further, access to this data will be available only for paid plans starting from Developer. For more information on our plans please visit  http://openweathermap.org/price

The previous version of API (http://openweathermap.org/api/old-uvi) will be announced deprecated soon, and no support will be provided for this version.

How to make online products on satellite images and integrate them to agricultural applications

How to make online products on satellite images and integrate them to agricultural applications

Hello, everyone!
We have good news for you)
How to make online products on satellite images and integrate them to agricultural applications.
It is a scope of workouts that might be useful for precision agriculture applications. You can learn how to query satellite images to form scenes in RGB, NDVI with any color scheme with flexible customization of any parameters for any crops. Just integrate any query into the application to get instant result.
http://owm.io/cases/agri

Weather risk management on agricultural market through index-based insurance and weather data

Weather risk management on agricultural market through index-based insurance and weather data

In recent years, the problem of decreasing productivity of agriculture has arisen sharper due to climate change and long-term weather fluctuations; there is even the threat of famine in some countries, which are more dependable on crop productivity. This problem can be solved with traditional and known for centuries tools, i.e. by expansion of sowed land through deforestation.

Simultaneously, the intensification of manufacturing or the expansion of cultivated land into previously wild areas can lead to additional emission of greenhouse gases due to the removal of trees and also these processes can increase the amount of used fertilizers. These both actions are factors contributing to climate change and appearance of negative weather phenomena such as drought.

Financial impact of changing climate on agriculture

Financial impact of changing climate on agriculture

Recent years agriculture experiences much heavier losses caused by changing climate and alterations in global middle-season temperature. Even a small rise or drop of usual temperature takes a toll on yield, productivity and profitability of agricultural sector. In such situations both manufacturers and consumers of products undergo some difficulties.    

Profit and losses of manufacturers and consumers differ significantly depending on their location; mostly this burden comes to developing countries since they have much dependence on yield productivity and it’s more difficult for them to adopt changes.